Abraham Maslow formed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940s- 50s USA. His theory of motivation has great value in the world of business in today’s world. The Hierarchy of Needs helps to understand human motivation, management training and personal development. Maslow’s theory about Motivation is concerning the responsibilities of employers to provide their employees with a workplace environment which would encourage the employees and enable them to grant their own potential which Maslow termed as the procedure of “self- actualization”. The process of self- actualization today is an important aspect in an employees and employers life.
Maslow published a book in 1954 named “Motivation and Personality”. In this book he introduced the Hierarchy of Needs and Maslow’s ideas about his work in details. Abraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970. Maslow has a PhD in psychology in 1934 at the University of Wisconsin formed the basis of his motivational research.
The Maslow’s theory of Motivation consists of five stages which include self-actualization, esteem needs, belongingness, safety needs and physiological needs. Below are the Hierarchy of needs produced from Maslow, starting from top to bottom:
- Self-Actualization: This need is placed right at the top of the pyramid on which Maslow has constructed his Hierarchy of need. Self- actualization is when an employee succeeds in obtaining personal growth.
- Esteem needs: Self- Esteem includes an employee’s overall subjective emotional evaluation about him or herself.
- Belongingness: The employee should feel like a family and have a good relationship with the staff in their company. This will create a feeling of belongingness and help maintain the positive vibe of the workplace.
- Safety needs: The safety of an employee is important. Hence, it is important for an employer to meet the safety need of an employee. In order to provide security and a comfortable environment. Furthermore, in order to achieve this task, it is important for an employer to produce laws and policy which protects his or her employees from not feeling safe in their workplace.
- Biological and Physiological needs: This is a basic need which each and every individual, be it an employee or an unemployed individual longs for. This stage of need consist of the basic elements which a job must satisfy, that is shelter, food, sleep etc.
In 1970 there were three needs included in Maslow’s Hierarchy, which is:
- Cognitive needs: Cognitive needs consist of knowledge and meaning etc.
- Aesthetic needs: Aesthetic needs consist of how an individual looks and balance etc.
- Transcendence needs: This is a need which is based on helping other people to achieve self- actualization.